History of virology
History of virology
I- Discovery of viruses.
1- Adolf Mayer, 1886, TMV is infectious
2- Dimitrii Ivanowski, 1892, infectious TMV solutions are sterile
3- Martinus Beijerinck, 1898, TMV is a subcellular infectious agent
II- Concepts of purity
1- James Johnson, 1920s, viruses differ in physical properties
2- F.O. Holmes, 1929, local lesion hosts, concept of a clone
III- Transmission mechanisms and specificity
1- Hoggan, 1929, demonstrates specificity of aphid transmission
2- Watson, Storey, 1939, Distinguish persistent and nonpersistent transmission
IV- The virus as a physical agent
1- Wendell Stanley, 1935, demonstrates that a virus is a molecule
2- Electron microscopy, 1937, made Stanley's hypothesis believable
V- The virus as a regular structure
1- Crick and Watson, 1956, TMV is a helix
2- Caspar and Klug, 1962, spherical viruses have discrete geometry
VI- The virus as a genetic agent
1- Fraenkel- Conrat, 1955, mixed reassembly to show RNA is the genetic material
2- Fraenkel-Conrat, Wittmann, late 1950's, TMV mutants reveal the genetic code
3- Harrison, 1967, divided genome viruses
VII- Specificity of assembly
1- Klug, 1971, role of capsid protein double disk in TMV assembly
VIII- The age of genome strategies
1- Diener, 1971, potato spindle tuber, a viroid
2- Clark, 1972, translation of STNV in wheat embryo system
3- Gross, et al 1978, PSTV nucleotide sequence (359 nucleotides)
4- Goelet, et al, 1982, nucleotide sequence of TMV
IX- Helper factor in aphid transmission
1- Govier and Kassanis, 1974, purified potyviruses lose aphid transmissibility
X- DNA viruses
1- Shepherd, 1968, cauliflower mosaic has a DNA genome
2- Several, 1983, explain nicks in CaMV DNA and show relationship to retroviruses
XI- Fulfilling Koch's postulates
1- Ahlquist, 1984, infectious in vitro transcripts of brome mosaic
XII- Transgenic plants (often to make virus resistant plants)
1- Beachy, 1986, expresses TMV capsid protein in tobacco
XIII- Expressing genes with viruses
1- Baulcombe,, 1995, Potato virus X as a gene vector