The nature of science
The nature of scienceScience is historically the most successful method for understanding the natural world. Science assumes that objects are as we see (directly or indirectly) them. Thus individuals studying the same object can agree that they see the same thing. Science also assumes natural explanations for natural phenomena. This can't be proved. There are certainly phenomena that don't yet have natural explanations. What we can say is that in no case has a non-natural explanation provided useful scientific insight.
Science employs observation, hypothesis, and experiment to study phenomena. Typically a phenomenon is observed. Either through direct observation or preliminary tests, hypotheses are generated to explain the phenomenon. Tests are then devised to distinguish among hypotheses. For straightforward phenomena single tests may suffice to convince. For complex and or controversial phenomena convincing demonstration may require a series of independent tests, preferably approaching the phenomenon in different ways. Typically a tested explanation is submitted to a scientific journal. If reviewers feel that the phenomenon is significant and the tests are convincing the work will be published. The ultimate test is whether the phenomenon and explanation prove useful to other scientists. Works which are discussed in scientific texts are typically not only published in scientific journals, but also cited by other scientific studies that have found them useful.
Science is analytical, i.e. it divides phenomena into components and tests the components separately. Complex phenomena can't often be studied holistically because variables can't be controlled. For example consider automobile repair or design. Individual systems are developed and only later integrated into the whole system. One can, for example, be an expert on fuel injection without knowing much about transaxles. One can't accurately diagnose and fix fuel injectors without understanding them explicitly.
Why science is so hard to believe