Important principles of science and evolution
Important principles of science and evolution

1- Science relies on creating and testing hypotheses, not on apologetics (rationalizing.)

*******Scientifc literature reflects legitimate science.
*******Public opinion often differs substantially from legitimate science.

2- There are many more living species and of greater variety than generally realized.

3- To appreciate the timescale of evolution one must understand exponents.

3- Morphology can be misleading as an indicator of evolution.

*******Morphologically similar species can differ dramatically in DNA sequence.
*******Species with dramatically different morphologies can have similar DNA sequences.

4- The fossil record is incomplete as science in general is incomplete.

*******The farther back in time the less complete the fossil record
*******Genealogy and history are likewise less complete at distant times.

5- Radiometric methods are best for dating fossils

*******They rely on atomic nuclei which are insensitive to chemical manipulation.
*******Different isotopic methods give the same dates.
*******Double blinding prevents manipulation of dates.
*******Half lives could conceivably vary slighlty, but not by orders of magnitude

6- All cells share the same genetic code and the same basic metabolism.

7- Mutation involves probability

*******The human mind is designed to think deterministically, not probabilistically
*******Understanding DNA based phylogeny requires understanding probability

8- Speciation involves splitting rather than replacement.

9- The phylogeny of individual genes follows the phylogeny of organisms.

*******Different genes yield the same phylogeny.

10- The evolution of dogs shows how intensive selection can lead to rapid change.

11- There are many speciation mechanisms most of which are incompletely understood.

12- Chromosome banding is a simple and easily understood indicator of phylogenetic relationships.

13- Evidence continues to increase for, not against, evolution.