Critical thinking
Critical thinking
Critical thinking at wikipedia
A Field Guide to Critical Thinking, Thinking
Critical thinking on the web, Students and critical thinking
Why is critical thinking hard to teach?

Raymond S. Nickerson (1987), an authority on critical thinking, characterizes a good critical thinker in terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of behaving. Here are some of the characteristics of such a thinker:
1- uses evidence skillfully and impartially

2- organizes thoughts and articulates them concisely and coherently

3- distinguishes between logically valid and invalid inferences

4- suspends judgment in the absence of sufficient evidence to support a decision

5- understands the difference between reasoning and rationalizing

6- attempts to anticipate the probable consequences of alternative actions

7- understands the idea of degrees of belief

8- sees similarities and analogies that are not superficially apparent

9- can learn independently and has an abiding interest in doing so

10- applies problem-solving techniques in domains other than those in which learned

11- can structure informally represented problems in such a way that formal techniques, such as mathematics, can be used to solve them

12- can strip a verbal argument of irrelevancies and phrase it in its essential terms

13- habitually questions one's own views and attempts to understand both the assumptions that are critical to those views and the implications of the views

14- is sensitive to the difference between the validity of a belief and the intensity with which it is held

15- is aware of the fact that one's understanding is always limited, often much more so than would be apparent to one with a noninquiring attitude

16- recognizes the fallibility of one's own opinions, the probability of bias in those opinions, and the danger of weighting evidence according to personal preferences