Science is a way of trying not to fool yourself. The first principle is that you must not fool yourself, and you are the easiest person to fool.

Richard Feynman
Convictions are greater enemies of truth than lies.

Friedrich Nietzsche
Cognitive biases enabled early humans to make quick decisions and maintain social cohesiveness. Today they are counterproductive to learning science.
Making decisions, Social cognition at wikipedia, Memory

Rationality materials at Less Wrong, Motivated reasoning

Situated cognition at wikipedia, Community of practice, Cox reference

List of cognitive biases, Cognitive dissonance, Recursive thinking

Tools for thinking, Association bias, Intellectuals in politics

Availability heuristic, more, more, Optimism bias, Thinking

Just-world hypothesis, 3 types of ignorance, Overcoming misinformation

Learning specifics may not help with learning abstractions

The psychology of incompetence, brief review, The Dunning-Kruger effect
Those who are incompetent in a given subject can't recognize competence in that subject.
The four stages of competence, Outline of thought

The illusion of explanatory depth
People are least competent in understanding and explaining mechanisms.
Critical thinking, Personal construct psychology

List of fallacious arguments, Albert Ellis, cognitive therapy

Formal reasoning (Piaget), Morton's demon (anticognition)

Perseverance of initial beliefs, Lack of awareness

Hypocognition, Attribution bias, more, Attribution theory, more