Formal constructs of biology
Formal constructs of biology
Cells - organisms are composed of cells that divide by mitosis

Metabolism - cells survive by degrading and synthesizing molecules

Aerobic respiration - cells burn carbon and hydrogen containing molecules during metabolism. In eucaryotes, mitochondria are critical for respiration.

Anaerobic metabolism - anaerobic organisms extract much less energy from substrates than do aeroobic organisms.

DNA synthesis - cells pass along information by "copying" DNA.

Cell division - Chromosomes double (mitosis) and separate into daughter cells.

Transcription - cells pass infomration from DNA to protein sythesis via messenger RNAs.

Translation - cells form proteins by decoding template messenger RNAs on ribosomes.

Enzymes - are products of translation and direct (catalyze) cellular metabolism.

Development, differentiation - multicellular organisms program changes in cell properties during cell division. Both the internal cell program and neighboring cells influence cell properties.

Carbon fixation - the process of photosynthesis (in chloroplasts) captures solar energy to produce carbohydrates

Organs - multicellular organisms contain organs which carry out specific processes.

Evolution - changes (mutations) in cellular DNA cause progeny cells (organisms) to differ slighly from their parents.

Speciation - as generations pass lineages no longer cross breed.

Mutation - chemical damage to DNA and errors of repair or recombination lead to gradual changes in DNA sequence.

Recombination - DNA recombination during sexual reproduction (meiosis) creates variation.