Formal constructs of biology
Formal constructs of biologyCells - organisms are composed of cells that divide by mitosis
Metabolism - cells survive by degrading and synthesizing molecules
Aerobic respiration - cells burn carbon and hydrogen containing molecules during metabolism. In eucaryotes, mitochondria are critical for respiration.
Anaerobic metabolism - anaerobic organisms extract much less energy from substrates than do aeroobic organisms.
DNA synthesis - cells pass along information by "copying" DNA.
Cell division - Chromosomes double (mitosis) and separate into daughter cells.
Transcription - cells pass infomration from DNA to protein sythesis via messenger RNAs.
Translation - cells form proteins by decoding template messenger RNAs on ribosomes.
Enzymes - are products of translation and direct (catalyze) cellular metabolism.
Development, differentiation - multicellular organisms program changes in cell properties during cell division. Both the internal cell program and neighboring cells influence cell properties.
Carbon fixation - the process of photosynthesis (in chloroplasts) captures solar energy to produce carbohydrates
Organs - multicellular organisms contain organs which carry out specific processes.
Evolution - changes (mutations) in cellular DNA cause progeny cells (organisms) to differ slighly from their parents.
Speciation - as generations pass lineages no longer cross breed.
Mutation - chemical damage to DNA and errors of repair or recombination lead to gradual changes in DNA sequence.
Recombination - DNA recombination during sexual reproduction (meiosis) creates variation.